149 по английскому языку за 9 класс  Л.М. Лапицкая, Н.В. Демченко, А.В. Волков

№149 по английскому языку за 9 класс Л.М. Лапицкая, Н.В. Демченко, А.В. Волков

авторы: Л.М. Лапицкая, Н.В. Демченко, А.В. Волков

учебник


Английский 9 класс Лапицкая страница 149

Thunderstorms

A thunderstorm is a storm with lightning and thunder, accompanied by gusty winds, heavy rain and sometimes hail.

The basic ingredients used to make a thunderstorm are moisture and unstable rising air. This process may be caused by a warm surface.

cause (n, c) - an event, thing, or person that makes something happen

cause (v, t) - to make something happen, usually something bad

For example, on a summer's day, the land is warmed by the sun, and as the air just above becomes warmer it starts to rise. As it rises it cools, and clouds start to form. These small, white clouds grow larger and larger as the temperature of the ground rises, causing more warm air to rise. After a time, the water droplets at the top of the cloud turn to ice (usually below a temperature of -20 °C). These ice particles often collide. When they do, smaller particles lose an electron to the larger, thus getting a positive charge and rising to the top of the cloud, while the larger particles start to fall. This causes the top of the cloud to develop a strong positive charge, and the base of the cloud to become negatively charged. This, in turn, induces a positive charge on the ground below around anything high, such as mountains, people, or single trees. The positive charge coming up from these points connects with the negative charge of the cloud base and - zap - lightning strikes!

Thus, lightning is a large electrical spark caused by electrons moving from one place to another. Electrons cannot be seen, but when they are moving extremely fast, the air around them shines, causing the lightning flash.

Look at the scheme and explain how winter storms are formed.

Winter storms are blizzards and ice storms which... melt (v) - change from ice to water

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